FRAGMENTS OF A ZADOKITE WORK
also known as
The Damascus Document
Translated by R. H. Charles in R. H. Charles, ed.,
The Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament in English,
vol. 2: Pseudepigrapha (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1913): pp. 799-834.
I have reformatted and rationalized the text to the Column and Line numbers shown by F. G. Martinez and E. J. C. Tigchelaar in The Dead Sea Scrolls, Study Edition, William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., Grand Rapids, 1997. Charles followed no consistent pattern in showing the Column and Line numbers, suggesting he was either in a hurry to produce a translation, or had other, now unknown purposes in mind. I noted that in places he followed the Blank spaces in the text as demarcation points for what we would call paragraph breaks. He then seemed to follow a Line number sequence from those Blank spaces. At other times he kept almost to the Line numbers of the original script. I have shown all of these Blank spaces that Charles does not show.
The text in bold face denotes emendations made by the several modern translators to correct scribal errors. Some of these seem arbitrary, and do not necessarily help in elucidation of the text.
Two Columns, denoted here as 15 and 16, were transposed in the Cairo Genizah text used by Charles. The Document was originally divided into two main sections: The first is an admonition that implores the congregation to remain faithful to the covenant of those who retreated from Judea to the "Land of Damascus." The second lists statutes dealing with vows and oaths, the tribunal, witnesses and judges, purification of water, Sabbath laws, and ritual cleanliness. I have moved the two columns from the latter context to the former, to suit those themes and the more recent Dead Sea discoveries. This came forcibly to our attention with comparison of the Damascus Document scrolls found in the Dead Sea caves 4, 5, and 6. Such transposition could have come about only if the Cairo Genizah documents used by Charles were in codex format, and not in scroll form. Each page of the codex would have been one Column.
I have removed the B Text which was part of the Cairo Genizah discovery. This text appears to be a later editorial creation, with different phraseology, and lengthy Columns, some 35 lines, versus the 21 to 23 lines found in the original document. Refer to the fragments now housed at the Cambridge University Library with the classmarks T-S 10K6 and T-S 16.311.
I have not attempted to modernize the Old English phrasing used by Charles to give it the appearance of biblical authenticity.
Where biblical quotations are used I have inserted the Bible references used by Martinez and Tigchelaar, obviously not in the original text.
The text used by Charles shows loss at the bottom of the Columns after Column 13. These textual losses do not occur in the translation of Martinez and Tigchelaar. This fact naturally raises the question of the copy used by Charles. Was it a poor copy, that exhibited loss at the bottom of those columns? Did it suffer damage with handling before it was translated by Charles? We have no certain answers.
I have used the HTML format created by Diane Morgan for the Wesley Center for Applied Theology at Northwest Nazarene University. This was done through the use of an optical scanner and OCR recognition software. Sometimes I noted faults in the OCR, which I corrected. I do not guarantee all such failures were corrected by myself.
Refer to the meticulous notes by R. H. Charles in his edition.
1 Blank Now, therefore, hearken (unto me) all ye who know righteousness, and have understanding in the works of
2 God. For He hath a controversy with all flesh, And will execute judgment upon all who despise Him.
3 For because of the trespass of those who forsook Him, He hid His face from Israel and from His Sanctuary,
4 And gave them over to the sword. But when He remembered the covenant of the forefathers, He left a remnant
5 to Israel, and gave them not over to destruction. [And in the period of the wrath three hundred and
6 ninety years after He had given them in the hand of Nebuchadnezzar, the King of Babylon
7 He visited them], and He made to spring forth from Israel and Aaron, A root of His planting to inherit
8 His land, And to grow fat through the goodness of His earth. And they had understanding of their iniquity, And they knew that
9 they were guilty men, And had like the blind been groping
10 after the way twenty years. And God considered their works; for they sought Him with a perfect heart
11 And He raised them up a Teacher of righteousness To lead them in the way of His heart. Blank And He made known
12 to later generations what He had done [to a later generation] to a congregation of treacherous men:
13 Those who turned aside out of the way. This was the time concerning which it was written: (Hos 4:16) "As a stubborn heifer
14 So hath Israel behaved himself stubbornly." When there arose the scornful man, Who talked to Israel
15 lying words, And made them go astray in the wilderness where there was no way, [to bring low the pride of the world].
16 So that they should turn aside from the paths of righteousness, And remove the landmark which the forefathers had set in their inheritance, So as
17 to make cleave unto them The curses of His covenant, To deliver them to the sword That avengeth with the vengeance
18 of the covenant. Because they sought after smooth things, And they chose deceits, And kept watch
19 with a view to lawless deeds. And they chose the best of the neck, And justified the wicked, And condemned the righteous:
20 And transgressed the covenant, And violated the statute, And attacked the soul of the righteous. And all that walked uprightly their soul abhorred,
21 And they pursued them with the sword, And rejoiced in the strife of the people. And so the wrath of
1 God was kindled against their congregation, So that He laid waste all their multitude, And their deeds were uncleanness before Him.
2 Blank And now hearken unto me all ye who have entered into the covenant, And I will disclose to you the ways of
3 the wicked. Blank God loveth [knowledge] wisdom: And counsel He hath set before Him;
4 Prudence and knowledge minister unto Him. Longsuffering is with Him And plenteousness of forgiveness.
5 To pardon those who repent of transgression. And power and might and great fury with flames of fire
6 [therein are all the angels of destruction] For them who turned aside out of the way, And abhorred the statute, So that there should be no remnant,
7 nor any to escape of them. For God chose them not from the beginning of the world, And ere they were formed He knew
8 their works. And He abhorred their generations from of old, And hid His face from their land
9 till they were consumed. [And He knew the years of (their) office and the number and exact statement of their periods for all
10 the things that belong to the ages and have been, moreover whatsoever shall come to pass in their periods for all the years of eternity.]
11 Yet in all of them He raised Him up men called by name, In order to leave a remnant to the earth, And to fill
12 the face of the earth with their seed. Blank And through His Messiah He shall make them know His holy spirit.
13 And he is true, and in the true interpretation of his name are their names: But them He hated He made to go astray. Blank
14 Blank Now therefore, children, hearken unto me, And I will open your eyes to see, And to understand the works of
15 God. And to choose what He approveth, And to reject what He hateth: To walk uprightly
16 in all His ways, And not to go about in the thoughts of an evil imagination And (with) eyes (full) of fornication. For many
17 were led astray by them, And mighty men of valor stumbled by them from of old [and until this day]. Because they walked in the stubbornness
18 of their heart the watchers of heaven fell. By them were they caught because they kept not the commandment of God.
19 And their children whose height was like the loftiness of the cedars And whose bodies were like the mountains fell thereby.
20 All flesh that was on dry land perished thereby. And they were as though they had not been. Because they did
21 their own will, and kept not the commandment of their Maker, Until His wrath was kindled against them.
1 Blank By them went astray the sons of Noah and their families: Because of them they were cut off.
2 Abraham did not walk in them, And he was (recorded) friend because he kept the commandments of God, And chose not
3 the will of his own spirit. And he delivered (the commandment) to Isaac and Jacob, And they observed them and were recorded as friends
4 of God, And members of the covenant forever. Blank The sons of Jacob went astray through them, And they were punished according to
5 their error. And their children in Egypt walked in the stubbornness of their heart, So that they took counsel against
6 the commandments of God. And every man did that which was right in his own eyes. [And they eat blood],
7 and He cut off their males in the desert (when He said) to them in Kadesh: (Deut 9:23) "Go up and possess (the land" but they hardened) their spirit: And they hearkened not
8 unto the voice of their Maker [The commandments of their Teacher] but murmured in their tents. And so the wrath of God was kindled
9 against their congregation. And their children [perished by it And their kings] were cut off by it, And their mighty men
10 perished by it, And their land was made desolate by it. By it the first that entered into the covenant incurred guilt, And they were delivered
11 unto the sword, Because they forsook the covenant of God: And they chose their own will, And went about after the stubbornness
12 of their heart, Every man doing his own will. Blank But with them that held fast by the commandments of God,
13 [who were left of them], God confirmed the covenant of Israel forever, Revealing unto them
14 the hidden things Wherein all Israel had erred: Blank His holy Sabbaths and His
15 glorious festivals, His righteous testimonies and His true ways, And the desires of His will [the which
16 if a man do, he shall live by them] Blank He opened before them. And they digged a well of many waters:
17 And he that despises them shall not live. But they wallowed in the transgression of man, And in the ways of the unclean woman,
18 And they said that it belongs to us. But God wondrously pardoned their sins, And forgave their transgression,
19 And He built them a sure house in Israel [the like of which never arose from of old nor until
20 this day]. They who hold fast to him are for the life of eternity, And all the glory of man (Adam) is for them. As
21 God confirmed it to them through Ezekiel the prophet, saying: (Ez 44:15) ‘The priests and the Levites and the sons of
1 Zadok, that kept the charge of My Sanctuary when the children of Israel went astray
2 from them, they shall bring near unto Me fat and blood. Blank The priests are the penitents of Israel
3 who went forth out of the land of Judah: and (the Levites are) they who joined them. And the sons of Zadok are the elect
4 of Israel called by the name, that are holding office in the end of the days. Behold the statement
5 of their names according to their generations, and the period of their office, and the number of their afflictions, and the years
6 of their sojournings, and the statement of their works. Blank The first saints whom
7 God pardoned, Both justified the righteous, and
condemned the wicked. And all they who come after them
8 must do according to the interpretation of the Law, In which the forefathers were instructed until
9 the consummation of the period of these years. In accordance with the covenant which God established with the forefathers in order to pardon
10 their sins, so shall God make atonement for them. And on the consummation of the period [of the number] of these years
11 they shall no more join themselves to the house of Judah. But shall every one stand up
12 against his net. The wall shall have been built, the boundary been far removed. And during all these years
13 Belial shall be let loose against Israel, as God spake through Isaiah the prophet, the son of
14 Amos, saying: (Isa 24:17) ‘Fear and the pit and the snare are upon thee, O inhabitant of the land.’ Blank This means
15 the three nets of Belial, concerning which Levi the son of Jacob spake,
16 by which he caught Israel and directed their faces to three kinds of
17 righteousness. 11 The first is fornication, the second is the wealth (of wickedness), the third
18 is the pollution of the Sanctuary. He that cometh up from this shall be caught by that, and he that escapeth from this shall be caught
19 by that. Blank The builders of the wall who walk after law — the law it is which talks,
20 of which He said: (Mic 2:6) "Assuredly they shall talk." — are caught [by two] by fornication in taking
21 two wives during their lifetime. But the fundamental principle of the creation is (Gen 1:27) ‘Male and Female created He them.’
1 And they who went into the Ark, (Gen 7:9) ‘Two and two went into the Ark.’ Blank And as to the prince it is written,
2 (Deut 17:17) ‘He shall not multiply wives unto himself.’ But David read not in the Book of the Law that was sealed, which
3 was in the Ark; for it was not opened in Israel from the day of the death of Eleazar
4 and Joshua, and the Elders who served Ashtaroth. And it was hidden
5 (and was not) discovered until Zadok arose: Now they glorified the deeds of David save only the blood of Uriah,
6 and God abandoned them to him. And they also pollute the Sanctuary since they
7 separate not according to the Law, and lie with her who sees the blood of her issue. And they take (to wife)
8 each his brother’s daughter or his sister’s daughter. Blank But Moses said (Lev 18:13) ‘Thou shalt not
9 approach thy mother’s sister: she is thy mother’s near kin’. So the law of intercourse
10 for males is written, and the same law holds for females; and let not the daughter of the brother uncover the nakedness of the brother
11 of her father: he is near of kin. Blank They also polluted their holy spirit and with
12 a tongue of blasphemies they opened the mouth against the statutes of the covenant of God, saying: They are not established. But abominations
13 they speak regarding them. They are all ‘kindlers of fire and setters aflame of firebrands’:
14 ‘The webs of spiders’ are their weavings and ‘the eggs of cockatrices’ are their eggs. He who comes near them
15 shall not be innocent: He that chooseth them shall be held guilty [unless he was forced]. Aforetime
16 God visited their works, and His wrath was kindled because of their devices. For ‘it is a people of no understanding’
17 ‘They are a nation void of counsel,’ (Because there is no understanding in them). For aforetime arose
18 Moses and Aaron through the prince of the Lights. But Belial raised Jochanneh with his evil device
19 and his brother when the former delivered Israel. Blank
20 Blank And during the period of the destruction of the land there arose those who removed the landmark and led Israel astray.
21 And the land became desolate because they spake rebellion against the commandments of God through Moses [and also
1 through His holy anointed one], and they prophesied a lie to turn away Israel from
2 God. But God remembered the covenant with the forefathers. Blank And He raised up from Aaron men of understanding And from Israel
3 wise men. And He made them to hearken, And they
digged the well (Num 21:18) ‘A well the princes digged,
4 The nobles of the people delved it By the order of the Lawgiver.’ The well is the Law, and they who digged it Blank are
5 the penitents of Israel who went forth out of the land of Judah and sojourned in the land of Damascus,
6 all of whom God called princes, For they sought Him and His glory was not turned back
7 in the mouth of one (of them). Blank And the Lawgiver is he who studies the Law, in regard to whom
8 Isaiah said, (Isa 54:16) 'He bringeth forth an instrument for his work.’ Blank And the nobles of the people are
9 those who came to dig the well by the precepts which the Lawgiver ordained
10 that they should walk throughout the full period of the wickedness. And save them they shall get nothing until there arises
11 the Teacher of Righteousness in the end of the days. Blank And none who have entered into the covenant
12 shall enter into the Sanctuary to kindle His altar but they shall shut the doors
13 concerning whom God said, (Mal 1:10) ‘0 that there was one among you to shut the doors, Blank So that ye might kindle the fire upon My altar,’
14 not vainly.' Unless they observe to do according to the true meaning of the Law until the period of the wickedness, and to sever themselves
15 from the children of the pit, and to hold aloof from the polluted wealth of wickedness under a vow
16 and a curse, and from the wealth of the Sanctuary. And in respect to robbing the pool of His people, So that widows may be their spoil.
17 And they may murder the fatherless: And to make a difference between the clean and the unclean and to make men discern between,
18 the holy and the profane: And to observe the Sabbath according to its true meaning and the feasts
19 and the day of the Fast according to the utterances of them who entered into the New Covenant in the land of Damascus:
20 To contribute their holy things according to the true interpretation. To love every one his brother
21 as himself, and to strengthen the hand of the poor and the needy and the stranger, Blank and to seek every one the peace
1 of his brother To hold aloof from harlots according to the law: and that no man should commit a trespass against his next of kin:
2 To rebuke every one his brother according to the commandment, and not to bear a grudge
3 from day to day, and to separate from all the pollutions according to their judgments. And no man shall make abominable (with these)
4 his holy spirit, according as God separated (these) from them. As for all those who walk
5 in these things in the perfection of holiness according to all the ordinances, the covenant of God Standeth fast unto them
6 to preserve them to a thousand generations. Blank And if they settle in camps according to the order of the land and take
7 wives (according to the custom of the Law) and beget children, they shall walk according to the Law. Blank and according to the judgments
8 of the ordinances according to the order of the Law as He spake, (Num 30:17) ‘between a man and his wife, and between a father
9 and his son’. But as for all them that reject, when God will bring a visitation upon the land, they shall be requited with the recompense of the wicked;
10 when there shall come to pass the word which is written in the words of Isaiah the son of Amos the prophet,
11 who said: (Isa 7:17) ‘He will bring upon thee and upon thy people and upon thy father’s house days that
12 have (not) come from the day that Ephraim departed from Judah.’ When the two houses of Israel separated,
13 [Ephraim departed from Judah, and] all who proved faithless were delivered to the sword, and those who held fast
14 escaped into the land of the North. Blank As He said, (Amos 5:26-27) ‘And I will cause to go into captivity Siccuth your King
15 and Chiun your images, (the star of your god which ye made for yourselves) beyond Damascus.’ Blank The books of the Law are the tabernacle
16 of the King, as He said, (Amos 9:11) ‘And I will raise up the tabernacle of David that is fallen.’ Blank The King
17 is the congregation and Chiun the images are the books of the Prophets,
18 whose words Israel has despised. Blank And the Star is he who studied the Law,
19 who came to Damascus, as it is written, (Num 24:13) ‘There shall come forth a star out of Jacob, and a sceptre shall rise \
20 out of Israel.’ The scepter is the prince of all the congregation. And when ‘he shall destroy
21 all the sons of (battle) din’….These shall escape during the period of the (first) visitation,
1 but those who proved faithless shall be delivered to the sword. And this also shall be the judgment of all them who have entered into His covenant, who
2 will not hold fast to these (statues): they shall be visited for destruction through the hand of Belial. This is the day
3 on which God shall visit (as He hath spoken). The princes of Judah were (like them that removed the landmark): Upon them will I pour out (My) wrath (like water).’
4 For they are too sick to be healed And they have been at the head of all the rebels. Because they have not turned from the way of
5 traitors, But have wallowed in the ways of harlots, And in the wealth of wickedness and (in) revenge. And every man beareth a grudge
6 against his Brother, And every man hateth his neighbor. And the committed trespass every man against his next of kin.
7 And drew near to unchastity: And exalted themselves with a view to wealth and unjust gain And every man did that which was right in his own eyes
8 And they chose every man the stubbornness of his heart, And they separated not from the people. And they cast off restraint with a high hand
9 To walk in the way of the wicked, concerning whom God said: (Deut 32:33) ‘Their wine is the poison of dragons
10 And the cruel venom of asps’. Blank The dragons are the kings of the Gentiles and their wine is
11 their ways, and the venom of asps is the head of the kings of Javan, who came to execute
12 vengeance upon them. But despite all these things they who builded the wall and daubed it with untempered mortar percieved not-
13 For one who was perturbed of spirit and talked lies talked to them that the wrath of God was kindled against all His congregation:
14 Nor that Moses said, (Deut 9:5) ‘Not for they righteousness or for the uprightness of thine heart dost thou go in to inherit
15 these nations, but because He loved thy fathers and because He would keep the oath.’
16 Blank And such is the case of the penitents of Israel (who) turned aside from the way of the people. Owing to the love of God for
17 the forefathers who stirred up (the people to follow after Him, He loved them that came after them; for theirs
18 is the covenant of the fathers. Blank But since He hated the builders of the wall His wrath was kindled. Blank . . .
19 And such (will be) the case of all who reject the commandments of God, and forsake them and turn away in the stubbornness of their heart.
20 Blank This is the word which Jeremiah spake to Baruch the son of Neriah, blank and Elisha
21 to his servant Gehazi. Blank All the men who entered into the New Covenant in the land of Damascus.
1 …(Shall not swe)ar either by Aleph Lamed or by Aleph Daleth, but by the oath (written)
2 in the curses of the covenant. Blank But the Law of Moses he shall not mention, for…
3 Blank And if he swears and transgresses he profanes the Name. Blank And if by the curses of the covenant…the Judges.
4 Blank And if he transgress he shall be held guilty but if he confess and make restitution he shall not bear (the penalty) of
5 death. Blank And whosoever in all Israel shall enter into the covenant by a statute forever, together with their children who are (not of an age)
6 to pass over into the number of those who are enrolled by the oath of the covenant. Blank shall confirm it
7 on their behalf. And this is also the law throughout the entire period of the wickedness for every one who returns from his corrupt way. On the day when he speaks with
8 the Censor of the many they shall enroll him by the oath of the covenant that Moses established
9 with Israel — the covenant to re(turn to the Law of M)oses…with all (his) heart…(and with all his)
10 soul. As regards that which there is found to be
done by them… And no man shall make known to him
11 the laws until he stand before the Censor (who) shall search out concerning him when he examines him.
12 And when he imposes it upon himself to return to
the Law of Moses with all his heart and all his soul
(From this point the text or translation appears corrupt. EPM)
13 …of him if… And every thing that was revealed of the Law with regard to a suit… in him…
14 the Censor him and shall command him…until…killed him…and the madman and all…
(loss of five lines)
1 covenant with you and with the whole of Israel. Therefore the man shall impose it upon himself to return to
2 the Law of Moses; for in it everything is accurately treated. Blank And as for the exact statement of their periods to put
3 Israel in remembrance in regard to all these, behold, it is treated accurately in the Book of the Divisions of the Seasons
4 according to their Jubilees and their Weeks. And on the day on which the man imposes it upon himself to return
5 to the law of Moses the angel of Mastema will depart from him if he make good his word.
6 Therefore Abraham was circumcised on the day of his knowing it. Blank As to what he said, (Deut 23:24) ‘That which is gone forth from thy lips
7 thou shalt keep to make it good.' Blank No binding oath, which a man imposes upon himself
8 with a view to perform a commandment of the law, shall he cancel even at the risk of death.
9 Nothing which a man (imposes) upon himself with a view to (frustrate the la)w shall he make good even at the risk of death.
10 (As for) the oath of the woman, whose oath Mos(es sa)id should be disallowed, no man shall disallow an oath
11 which no man knew. It is to be confirmed. And whether it be to disallow or
12 to transgress the covenant, he shall disallow it and not confirm it. Blank And so is also the law for her father.
13 As to the law of the of(fer)ings no man shall vow anything for the altar under compulsion. Nor
14 shall the (pr)iests take anything from the Israelites… (Nor) shall a man dedicate the food…
(Here the translation is somewhat corrupt, EPM)
15 this is what he said, (Mic 7:2) ‘They hunt every man his brother with a net.’
16 - 17 Nor shall de(vote)…of all…his possession…holy…shall be punished he…who takes a vow… to the judge…
1 Blank (Lev 27:29) Every man who puts under the ban a man [amongst men] according to the ordinances of the Gentiles is to be put to death.
2 And as for that which He hath said: (Lev 19:18) 'Thou shalt not take vengeance nor bear a grudge against the children of thy people,’ every man of those who have entered into
3 the covenant, who brings a charge against his neighbor whom he had not rebuked before witnesses,
4 and yet brings it in his fierce wrath or recounts (it) to his elders in order to bring him into contempt, is taking vengeance and bearing a grudge.
5 Blank But naught is written save that, (Nah 1:2) ‘He taketh vengeance on His adversaries, and He beareth a grudge against His enemies.’
6 If he held his peace with regard to him from day to day, but in his fierce wrath spake against him in a matter of death,
7 he hath testified against himself because he did not give effect to the commandment of God, Who said to him, (Lev 19:17) ‘Thou shalt
8 surely rebuke thy neighbor and not bear sin because of him.’ Blank As regards the oath,
9 touching that which He said (1 Sam 25:26) ‘Thou shalt not avenge thee with thine own hand’, the man who makes (another man) swear in the open field-that is,
10 not in the presence of the judges, or owing to their commands, hath avenged himself with his own hand. And as for anything that is lost,
11 should it not be known who has stolen it from the property of the camp in which the thing has been stolen, its owner shall proclaim
12 (it) by the oath of cursing and whoso hears, if he knows and declares it not, shall be held guilty.
13 Blank As for any restitution made by him who returns that which has [not] an owner, he who returns (it) shall confess to the priest,
14 and (that which was lost) shall be given back to him, besides the ram of the guilt-offering to the priest; Blank and so everything (that was) lost (and) found and has no 15 owner shall be given to the priests for he who found it knows not its law.
16 If its owner is not found they shall take charge (of it). Blank If a man in any matter trespasses
17 against the Law and his neighbor and none but he sees it, if it be a matter of death, he shall make it known to the Censor
18 in the presence Blank of the accused in discharging the duty of reproof: and the Censor shall write it down with his own hand:
19 If he do it again before another, he shall return and make it known to the Censor. If he shall be caught again before
20 another, his judgment shall be executed. Blank And if they are two and they witness against him
21 (each) on a different thing the man shall be only excluded from the Purity (pure food), Blank provided that
22 they are trustworthy, and that on the day on which they have seen the man they make it known to the Censor. And according to the statute (they shall) accept two
23 trustworthy witnesses, Blank and not one to exclude the Purity. And there shall arise no witness
1 before the judges to cause a man to be put to death at his mouth, whose days have not been fulfilled so as to pass
2 over unto those that are numbered (and who is not) a man who fears God. Blank None shall be believed as a witness against his neighbor
3 who transgresses a word of the commandment with a high hand until they are cleansed through repentance.
4 Blank And this is the order in reference to the judges of the congregation. (They shall amount) to ten men selected
5 from the congregation according to the time (defined); four of the tribe of Levi and Aaron, and six of Israel
6 learned in the Book of the HAGY and in the Ordinances of the Covenant, from
7 five and twenty years old even unto sixty years old. But none shall be appointed
8 when he is sixty years old and upward to judge the congregation. For through the trespasses of man
9 his days were minished, and when the wrath of God was kindled against the inhabitants of the earth, He commanded to depart
10 their intelligence from them before they completed their days. As to being cleansed in water. No
11 man shall wash in water (that is) filthy or insufficient for a man’s bath.
12 Blank None shall cleanse himself in the waters of a vessel. And every pool in a rock in which there is not
13 sufficient (water) for a bath, which an unclean person has touched, its waters shall be unclean like the waters of the vessel.
14 As to the Sabbath, to observe it according to its law, Blank no man shall do
15 work on the sixth day from the time when the sun’s orb is
16 in its fullness is still without the gate, for it is He who has said, (Deut 5:12) ‘Observe the
17 Sabbath day to keep it holy.’ And on the Sabbath day no man shall utter
18 a word of folly and vanity. No man shall lend aught, to his neighbor. None shall dispute on matters of wealth and gain.
19 None shall speak on matters of work and labor to be done on the following morning.
20 Blank No man shall walk in the field to do the work of his business. On
21 the Sabbath none shall walk outside his city more than a thousand cubits.
22 Blank No man shall eat on the Sabbath day aught save that which is prepared or perishing
23 (in the field). Blank Nor shall one eat or drink unless in the camp.
1 (If he was) on the way and went down to wash he may drink where he stands, Blank but he shall not draw into
2 any vessel. No man shall send the son of a stranger to do his business on the Sabbath day.
3 Blank No man shall put on garments that are filthy or were brought by a Gentile unless
4 they were washed in water or rubbed with frankincense. Blank No man shall fast of his own will
5 on the Sabbath. Blank No man shall walk after the animal to pasture it outside his city more
6 than two thousand cubits. Blank None shall lift his hand to smite it with (his) fist. Blank If
7 it be stubborn he shall not remove it out of his house. Blank No man shall carry anything from the house
8 to the outside or from the outside into the house.
And if he be in the vestibule he shall not carry anything out of it
9 or bring in anything into it. None shall open the cover of a vessel that is pasted on the Sabbath. Blank No man shall carry on him
10 spices to go out or come in on the Sabbath. Blank None shall lift up in his dwelling house
11 rock or earth. Blank Let not the nursing father take the sucking child to go out or to come in on the Sabbath.
12 Blank No man shall provoke his manservant or his maid-servant or his hireling on the Sabbath.
13 Blank No man shall help an animal in its delivery on the Sabbath day. Blank And if it falls into a pit
14 or ditch, he shall not raise it on the Sabbath. Blank No man shall rest in a place near
15 to the Gentiles on the Sabbath. Blank No man shall suffer himself to be polluted [the Sabbath] for the sake of wealth or gain on the Sabbath.
16 Blank And if any person falls into a place of water or into a place of…
17 he shall not bring him up by a ladder or a cord or instrument. Blank No man shall offer anything on the altar on the Sabbath,
18 save the burnt-offering of the Sabbath, for so it is written (Lev 23:38) ‘Excepting your Sabbaths’. Blank No man shall send
19 to the altar burnt-offering or meat-offering or frankincense or wood through the hand of a man (that is) unclean through any
20 of the uncleannesses allowing him to defile the altar, for it is written: (Prov 15:8) ‘The sacrifice
21 of the wicked is an abomination, but the prayer of the righteous is like an offering of delight.’ Blank And none of those who enter
22 into the house of worship shall enter when he is unclean even though washed. And when the trumpets of the Congregation sound,
23 it shall he (done) before or after, and they shall not put an end to the whole service,
1 (the Sabbath) is holy. Blank No man shall lie with a woman in the city of the Sanctuary to defile
2 the city of the Sanctuary by their impurity. Blank Any man who is ruled by the spirits of Belial
3 and speaks rebellion shall be judged by the judgement of the necromancer and wizard. And he whom he leads astray
4 into profaning the Sabbath and the Feasts shall not be put to death; but it shall be the duty of the sons of man
5 to watch him; and should he be healed of it, they shall watch him seven years and then
6 he shall come into the Congregation. Blank None shall stretch out his hand to shed the blood of any man from among the Gentiles
7 for the sake of wealth or gain. Blank Nor shall he take aught of their wealth lest they
8 blaspheme, unless by the counsel of the Community of Israel. Blank No man shall sell an animal
9 or bird that is clean to the Gentiles, lest they sacrifice them. Blank
10 Nor shall he sell them aught from his threshing-floor or his winepress for all his property. Nor shall he sell them his manservant or maidservant
11 who entered with him into the covenant of Abraham. Blank No man shall make himself abominable
12 with any living creature or creeping thing, by eating of them: or of the defilements of bees or of any living
13 creature that moveth in the waters. Nor shall fish be eaten unless they were split
14 alive and their blood was shed. But all the locusts after their kind shall come into fire or into water
15 whilst they are still living, for this is the manner of their creation. Blank And all wood and stones
16 and dust which are polluted by the uncleanness of man are polluted like them. According to
17 their uncleanness shall be unclean he who toucheth them. Blank And every instrument, nail, or peg in the wall
18 which is with the dead in the house shall be unclean, like the uncleanness of an instrument of work.
19 Blank The regulation of the dwellers in the cities of Israel, according to these judgments, that a difference may be made between
20 the unclean and the clean, and to make known (the difference) between the holy and the common. Blank And these statutes
21 are to give instruction so that the whole nation may walk in them according to the Law always. And according to this law
22 shall walk the seed of Israel, and they shall not be cursed. Blank And this is the regulation of the dwellers
23 (according to which they should) act during the
period of the wickedness until there arises the Messiah (from) Aaron
1 and Israel, up to ten men at least, to thousands and hundreds and fifties
2 and tens. And when there arise ten, the man who is a priest learned in the Book of the HAGY shall not depart.
3 According to his word shall they all be ruled. Blank And if he is not expert in all these, but a man of the Levites is expert
4 in these, the lot shall be that all those that enter into the camp shall go out and come in according to his word. Blank And if
5 there be a judgment regarding the law of leprosy which is in a man, then the priest shall come and stand in the camp,
6 and the Censor shall instruct him in the true meaning of the law. Blank And (even) if he is lacking in understanding He shall shut him up; for unto them (i.e. the priests)
7 is the judgment. Blank And this is the regulation of the Censor of the camp. He shall instruct the many in the works of
8 God, and shall make them understand His wondrous mighty acts, and shall narrate before them the things of the world since its creation.
9 And he shall have mercy upon them as a father upon his children, and shall for(give) all that have incurred guilt. As a shepherd with his flock
10 he shall loose all the bonds of their knots…oppressed and crushed in his congregation.
11 Blank And every one who joins his congregation, he shall reckon him according to his works, his understanding, his might, his strength, and his wealth.
12 And they shall record him in his place in accordance with his position in a lot of the (camp). Blank No man
13 of the children of the camp shall have power to bring a man into the congregation (without) the word of the Censor of the camp.
14 Blank Nor shall any man of them who have entered into the covenant of God do business (with) the children of the pit
15 (un)less hand to hand. Blank No man shall do (a thing as buy)ing and sell(ing) un(less he has spoken) to
16 the Censor of the camp . . .
(From this point the translation is corrupt. EPM)
and he shall do (it in the ca)mp and not… and so to him who casts forth…they,
and he who is not connected with… And this is the settlement of the camps. All shall not succeed to settle in the land…11
1 that have not come from the day that Ephraim departed from Judah. And as for all who walk in these
2 the covenant of God standeth fast unto them to save them from all the snares of the pit, for suddenly…
3 Blank And the regulation of the dwellers of all the camps is: They shall be numbered all by their names, the Priests first,
4 the Levites second, the children of Israel third, and the proselyte fourth. And they shall be recorded by their names
5 one after another, the Priests first, the Levites second, the children of Israel
6 third, and the proselyte fourth. And so they shall be seated and so they shall ask with regard to every matter. And the Priest who numbers
7 the many (shall be) from thirty years old even unto sixty years old, learned in the Book
8 (of the HAGY and) in all the judgments of the Law to direct them according to their judgments. Blank And the Censor who is
9 over all the camps shall be from thirty years old even unto fifty years old,
10 a master in every counsel of men, and in every tongue . . . According to his word shall come in those who enter the congregation
11 every man in his due order. And as regards any matter on which it shall be incumbent for any man to speak, he shall speak to the Censor
12 in regard to any suit or cause. Blank And this is the regulation for the many in order to provide for all their needs. The wages
13 of two days every month is the rule. And they shall give it into the hands of the Censor and the judges.
14 From it they shall give…and (from) it they shall strengthen the hand of the poor and the needy. And to the aged man who
15 . . . to the vagrant and him (who) was taken captive of a strange people. And to the virgin who
16 has (no redeemer) (and to Him whom) no man careth for: every work… and not…
(From this point the translation is corrupt. EPM)