No more clear connection between people on the shores of the Black Sea and those on the shores of the western Mediterranean could be found than in the name Iberia. The two names are identical in our historic records. They not only are identical in sound, but nearly identical in time, circa 600 BC.
Now that you are educated to that history you know Iberia is the political name for the people who were known as the Iberi (or Ibri). We now know the Iberi name to be from the Semitic Hebrew tongue transformed into the English word Hebrew. (Go back and check my previous letters.)
But modern scholars, imbued with their godlessness, and totally rattled in their thinking, cannot admit the identity that is so clearly Hebrew.
Yet the name stuck to the land on the shores of the Black Sea for more than a 1000 years and to the Iberian peninsula for more than 2500 years. Iberia today is a reminder of the Iberia of so many centuries ago. Iberia today is a reminder of the Hebrew origins so many millennia ago.
When the Iberi people mixed their blood lines with other genetic groups, they created new political identities. The name Iberi stuck, but tribal names evolved into different forms. You can see this in the map I show here.
The Celtic people were also a part of this expansion of the Hebrew blood lines, seen in the Celtic names on the Iberian peninsula: Celtici, Callaeci, Cantabri, Celtiberi. The last is a marriage of Celt and Iberi. As you can see they made up a good portion of the peninsula. I will discuss the Kelts in a future paper.
We can get some idea of the racial characteristic of these people from the
following sculpture, dating to about 400 BC. (Other sculptures exist.) This is
called The Lady of Elche because it was found about two kilometers south of Elx/Elche, Valencia, Spain. She
certainly was noble in appearance. Her hair was coiled into rolls encased in
ceramic circular containers. She is bedecked with various jewelry and adornment.
The modern Hopi Indian maidens also coil their hair in this fashion.
Iberian origins are not clear from our historical records. Greek and Roman sources (among others, Hecataeus of Miletus, Avienus, Herodotus and Strabo) identified with that name in the eastern and southern coasts of the Iberian peninsula at least from the 6th century BC. Most scholars believe from archaeological, anthropological and genetic evidence that the Iberians came from a region farther east in the Mediterranean. I have shown you that region.
The later Iberians were not a clearly defined culture, ethnic group or political entity. The name is instead a blanket term for a number of peoples belonging to a pre-Roman Iron Age culture. Although these peoples shared certain common features, they diverged widely in other respects.
The Iberians traded extensively with other Mediterranean cultures. Iberian pottery has been found in France, Italy, and North Africa. Thucydides stated that one of the three original tribes of Sicily, the Sicani, were of Iberian origin, though "Iberian" at the time could have included what we think of as Gaul. The Iberians were placed under Carthaginian rule for a short time between the First and Second Punic Wars. They supplied troops to Hannibal's army. The Romans subsequently conquered the Iberian Peninsula and slowly supplanted the local culture with their own.
The Iberians lived in isolated communities based on a tribal organization. They also had a knowledge of metalworking, including bronze, and agricultural techniques. In the centuries preceding Carthaginian and Roman conquest, Iberian settlements grew in social complexity, exhibiting evidence of social stratification and urbanization. This process was probably aided by trading contacts with the Phoenicians, Greeks, and Carthaginians. Among the most important goods traded by the Iberians were precious metals, particularly tin and copper.
The Iberian language, like the rest of paleohispanic languages, became extinct by the 1st to 2nd centuries AD, after being gradually replaced by Latin. It is generally considered as a non-Indo-European language. Linguists do not reach beyond their highly limited classifications to recognize the Hebrew elements of Iberian.
The inscriptions that use the Greco–Iberian alphabet had been found mainly in Alicante and Murcia and the direction of the writing is left to right. The number of known Greco-Iberian inscriptions is small: fewer than two dozen ceramic inscriptions and a dozen lead plaques. The archaeological context of the Greco-Iberian inscriptions seems to concentrate in the 4th century BC, but the paleographic characteristics of the model indicate that the adaptation may date from the 5th century BC.
All Iberian evidence points to Hebrew influence dating from 600 BC.
The Ebro River and Ebro valley are forms that can clearly be traced to Hebrew. The river that flows from the Cantabrian mountains in northern Spain to the eastern coast of Catalonia was called the Iberus by Strabo, 3.4.1. Elsewhere he calls it the Iber, 3.4.10. Ebro is merely a phonetic variation of Iber.
The Cantabrian mountains received their name from the Cantabrian tribe of the Iberi who occupied the northern sections of Spain along the Atlantic coast. The Cantabri were also trouble to the Romans. Heavy campaigns against them began around 150 BC but they were not subdued until the reigns of Agrippa and Augustus, at the time of Jesus. The Cantabri name is made up of two elements, Cant + Ibri. Other names show themselves related to the Iberi. Evora in the Evora district of Portugal was once called Ebora, an evident Iber/Eber name. Both the Aviero and the Beira regions of Portugal may be Iberi names. Other names, such as Miranda de Ebro and Villafranca del Bierzo, may reflect this ancient influence.
The Iberi trail does not end with the Iberian peninsula. It continues north to Ireland. The name Ireland comes from Old English Iraland from Yra-land. In turn Yra comes from an older Irish Eri. The Irish Eriu, with its inflected forms of Eirinn and Erin, comes from the Old Keltic Iveriu, with the accusative and ablative Iverionum and Iverione.
Iveria is Iberia with a common
"b" to "v" phonetic shift. The Old Keltic Iveriu is Iberiu and
this is the familiar Iberi name.
The first recorded mention of
Ireland was by the Greek explorer Pytheas in the 4th century BC, who traveled
beyond the straights of Gibraltar and north along the English coast to Iceland.
He called Ireland I'erne, as did the classical Greek writers after him.
The Roman name used by Julius Caesar was Hibernia. Pomponius referred to
it as Iuvernia.
The -an ending on proper
names is an old Latin practice which is also found in many other Indo-European
languages. English has African for Africa, American for America, Russian for
Russia, and so on. Without the "n" Hibernia becomes Hiberia and
this is the familiar Iberi name with an "H" added to the front, as in
Haberi. Some authors have claimed that the Hebrides Islands off the coast
of Scotland also display the Ibri name but the origins are contested. The
Egyptian geographer Ptolemais, circa 150 AD, gave the name as Eboudai, while
Pliny, the Roman writer, circa 100 AD, gave it as Haebudes. Bunbury felt that
Hebrides was a corrupt form of the latter. On the other hand Eboudai/Haebudes
may be corruptions of Ibridai/Ibrides.
Other evidence points to the
origins of the Irish Iveriu. The Lebor Gabala Erenn, "The Book of
the Taking of Ireland," is a medieval work which attempts to describe the
history of Ireland. According to those accounts one of the later people to
invade Ireland were the Sons of Mil. They first occupied a land called Scythia.
They came to Ireland through Egypt, Crete, Sicily and Spain. They were called
Gaedhal (Gael) because their remote ancestor, who lived with Moses, was Gaodhal
Glas. According to the Irish folk tales, as a child Gaedhal was cured of a
serpent bite by Moses who promised that no serpent would infest the land where
his descendants lived. Thus the folklore explanation for the lack of serpents in
Ireland. According to the traditions a grandson of Gaodhal named Niul married a
Pharaoh's daughter named Scota. Her name then became the ancient name Scotia by
which Ireland was known to many people. (This name was later transferred with
the migration of Irish people to Albion -- Scotland.) According to the folk
tale, while in Egypt Niul and his people grew rich and powerful. They resented
the injustices of a later Pharaoh, were driven from Egypt, and after long and
varied wanderings, reached Spain. After sojourning in that land for some
generations a certain Bregon, one of their number, heard of Inisfail, the
Island of Destiny. Bregon built a tower in Spain and from there his son
Ith was able to see the magic land. (We know this is folk myth; one could not
see Ireland from any tower in Spain.) Ith set sail for Ireland to investigate
but the Tuatha de Danann, who were in control of the island, were suspicious of
his motives and killed him. His kinsmen, the eight Sons of Mil, invaded Ireland
to avenge his death. Most prominent of the eight were Donn (a clear Hebrew name)
the king, Amairgen the poet and judge, Eremon the leader of the expedition, and,
most important to our study, Eber (a plain biblical Hebrew name). With a large
body of people they defeated the Tuatha and took control of Ireland. According
to some older Irish scholars the Sons of Mil reached Spain in the fifth century
The old Irish folk tales,
including the Lebor Gabala Erenn, show many distorted folk traditions
mixed with segments that must be based on actual events. The scribes who put
these stories together in the eleventh and twelfth centuries had strong faith in
their source materials, even though they did not fully understand them. We can
see that Donn is part of the memory of Adam. Eber also is probably part of the
memory of the ancestor of the Iberi, and strengthens our proposition that the
Irish people have a strong admixture of Iberi blood. Perhaps there was an
individual among the immigrating clans from Spain who was named Eber. We cannot
say. But it is obvious that the folk traditions of Irish origins repeat the very
route of the Iberi migrations from Egypt, Caucasian and Moetic Asia, the
Mediterranean, and Spain. That these traditions so closely follow the linguistic
and historic evidence speaks for valid roots in the traditions, even though they
come to us distorted.
According to the stories Eremon
and Eber divided Ireland between them, with Eremon receiving the north and Eber
the south. In the new era that is being inaugurated Eriu will be the "high ship"
of the Sons of Mil. To them and to Lugaid, son of Ith, will be traced the
lineage of all the tribes of Ireland.
This folk evidence from Ireland
supports our estimates that the Iberi came from "Abraham the Ibri" and not
merely the Haberi. The time of those migrations would be in the seventh and
sixth centuries BC, eventually reaching Ireland.
Hibernia is the Classical Latin name for the island of Ireland. The name Hibernia was taken from Greek geographical accounts. During his exploration of northwest Europe (c. 320 BC), Pytheas of Massilia called the island Iérnē. In his book Geographia (c. 150 AD), Claudius Ptolemaeus ("Ptolemy") called the island Iouerníā. The Roman historian Tacitus, in his book Agricola (c. 98 AD), uses the name Hibernia. The Romans also sometimes used Scotia, "land of the Scoti", as a geographical term for Ireland in general, as well as just the part inhabited by those people.
Iouerníā was a Greek alteration of the Q-Celtic name Īweriū from which eventually arose the Irish names Ériu and Éire.
Difference between Éire and Erin
While Éire is simply the name for Ireland in the Irish language, and sometimes used in English, Erin is a common poetic name for Ireland, as in Erin go bragh. The distinction between the two is one of the difference between cases of nouns in Irish. Éire is the nominative case, the case that (in the modern Gaelic languages) is used for nouns that are the subject of a sentence i.e. the noun that is doing something as well as the direct object of a sentence. Erin derives from Éirinn, the Irish dative case of Éire, which has replaced the nominative case in Déise Irish (and some non-standard sub-dialects elsewhere), in Scottish Gaelic (where the usual word for Ireland is Èirinn) and Manx (a form of Gaelic), where the word is spelled Nerin, with the initial n- is probably in origin a fossilisation of the preposition in/an "in" (cf. Irish in Éirinn, Scottish an Èirinn/ann an Èirinn "in Ireland"). The genitive case Éireann is used in the Gaelic forms of the titles of companies and institutions in Ireland e.g. Iarnród Éireann (Irish Rail), Dáil Éireann (Irish Parliament) or Poblacht na hÉireann (The Republic of Ireland).